Southern Ming Dynasty (1644-1662 A.D.)

Southern Ming Dynasty (1644-1662 A.D.)

Southern Ming DynastyIn 1644 A.D. Beijing the capitol fall to the hand of the rebel Shun dynasty, some remnants from the Ming imperial family and court ministers has fled the capitol before its fall and moved to Nanjing, after word of emperor Chongzhen death, they established their power in south of china, declaring Nanjing as their capitol.

In order to prevent crisis the southern Ming court has chosen the Prince of Fu (Zhu Yousong) as the protector of the state, as he was the successor in the line after emperor Chongzhen sons, which their fate was unknown.

Eventually after getting more support from the strongest allies he was declared as emperor Honguang, after a year of reigning the southern area of China, internal conflicts involving a former warlord who sent his forces to clear the corruption officials in the Honguang court, Ming troops who were supposed to be defending against the Qing dynasty forces was sent to deal with him.

The Qing dynasty forces which started their conquest of south China, has arrived to Yangzhou, the city of Yangzhou with half their troops scattered tried to resist the Qing empire, but the city has fell, and was massacred, including the defending commander Shi Kefa, it is said that in the massacre more than 800,000 people has died, the Qing forces has arrived to Nanjing, who has subdued to her with no resistance, Emperor Honguang fled Nanjing but was captured after and was sent to Beijing to the Qing dynasty court, he died a year later.

Early Qing dynasty Porcelain VaseAfter the fall of Nanjing, Prince of Tang has fled to Fuzhou, brought under the protection of a sea trader name Zheng Zhilong, the prince of Tang was crowned as emperor Longwu in 1645 A.D. and lasted a year, after he was captured by the Qing dynasty and executed.

The southern Ming dynasty power has been divided and few emperors were raised in different regions,

After the death of emperor Longwu, his brother succeeded him as emperor Shaowu, he fled to Guangzhou when Fuzhou was captured at 1646 and was declared as emperor only few days before prince of Gui declared himself as Yongli emperor, both emperors claim to be the legitimate heirs to the Ming dynasty, what has created war between the two new emperors, after 40 days, Guangzhou fell to the hand of the Qing dynasty, and emperor Shaowu committed suicide.

In 1658 A.D. Emperor Yongli (the 7th son of emperor Wanli) who was pressed back by the Qing army over the years moving to the south west of china, and ending in the Yunnan province, he was helped by region warlords and supporters, in 1661 he was granted refuge in Burma by King Pindale of the Taungoo dynasty of Burma, and was permitted to live in the city of Sagaing.

After moving to Sagaing, King Pindale started to see emperor Yongli wanted to make Burma as his kingdom, and war broke between the two sides, the Chinese who have lost and was murdered in the order of Pye Min, King Pindale brother, all except to Zou Youlang (emperor Yongli) and his family.

The End Of The Southern Ming Dynasty

In 1662 an army from the Qing dynasty led by Wu Sangui has entered Burma and demanded Youlang to be submitted to them, the Burmese who didn’t seek for another battle, delivered the emperor, his sons and grandsons to Wu Sangui who was a Chinese general that played a major rule in the fall of the Ming dynasty, he is blamed for opening the gates of the great wall to the Manchurian forces, and after the fall of Beijing leading troops against the southern Ming.

Emperor Yongli was the last known claimant to the Ming dynasty throne, was strangled by Wu Sangui in 1662 A.D.

That was the true end to the  Ming dynasty including their last resistance as the Southern Ming dynasty, the empire of China was now controlled by the Qing dynasty.

We have some rare antiques from the southern Ming dynasty period offered for sale in our shop.

Click here to see our Southern Ming dynasty porcelain and other items.

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The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912 A.D.)

The Qing dynasty was the last imperial dynasty that has ruled China, the dynasty was founded at 1644 A.D, after the fall of Beijing to a peasant rebel host, led by “Li Zicheng”, he has established the Shun dynasty, but were conquered less then a year later by the Qing dynasty.

The Qing dynasty was founded by non-Han Chinese, The Jurchen who have lived in Manchuria and were vassals to the great Ming empire before, “Nurachi” have started to unite the clans in Manchuria and by 1635 A.D. pushed the Ming dynasty out of the southern land in Manchuria.

Although The founder of the Dynasty was “Emperor Nurachi” who was the 1st emperor of the Qing dynasty, the 1st Emperor who ruled china properly and has claimed the mandate of heaven was Emperor Shunzhi.

after “Hong Taiji” (The 2nd Qing Emperor) died at 1643 A.D, without naming an heir, a committee of Manchu princes has chosen who will be the next emperor of Qing, and they chose 5 years old Fulin which is also known as “Emperor Shunzhi”, in the beginning of his reign, the real power lay in the hands of Price Dorgon, who was the 14th son of Nurachi and the Regent of the young emperor.

The control in the country by prince Dorgon lasted until the day he died in 1650 A.D, when Emperor Shunzhi has started to reign by himself, he died from smallpox at 1661 A.D.

His own son “Emperor Kangxi” has proceeded him, and has completed the conquest of china from the Ming empire, Emperor Kangxi is considered as one of the best Emperor in China’s history, and his reign lasted 61 years, The period of Emperor Kangxi was a zenith era for china, Socially, economically and military.

Emperor Kangxi has established political relations with some of the Mongol tribes, he has conquered Taiwan, and helped Tibet and outer Mongolia against their enemy which eventually led them to incorporate with the Chinese Empire.

After Emperor Kangxi death at 1722 A.D, his fourth son took the Throne as “Emperor Yongzheng” who ruled china for 13 years, until 1735 A.D, when he died, and his own son “Emperor Qianlong” succeeded him.

In The Period of Emperor Qianlong china has marked its highest power during the Qing dynasty, Qianlong has proved to be a great leader, he even led some battles himself against the Mongols, and suppressed revolts in southern china, he had his mind to conquer Burma and Vietnam, but the forces he sent there were not successful.

In 1796 A.D, he stepped down from the throne and declared “Emperor Jiaqing” (his son) as his successor, even though he still held all the power, he didn’t want to rule more than his grandfather emperor Kangxi.

In the last year of his reign the white lotus society rebellion has started and lasted for 8 years, which in the end of that period the Qing dynasty had a drastic change, Emperor Qianlong died at 1799 A.D.

During the 19th century in china, many problems started to rise, the Qing dynasty control has weaken, economic stagnation, and a massive population growth has led to starvation.