The Song dynasty has started its reign in 960 A.D. after the Five dynasties/Ten kingdom period.
The Era of the Song dynasty was full with new inventions, and its divided into two period, The Northern Song (960 – 1127 A.D.) and the Southern Song (1127-1279 A.D.)
The Northern Song period starts with Emperor Taizu of Song who was the founder of the dynasty, he has unified china, conquering the lands from the five dynasties, he established his reign in bianjing (Today, Kaifeng) as capitol and ruled until 976 A.D.
During the Northern Song period, there were diplomatic and warfare relations with the Liao dynasty, until there were a rebellion in the Liao state by the jurchen tribe, and the Jin Dynasty was founded,
The Song court until then was very concentrated in its own internal affairs, now saw an opportunity and allied with the jurchen tribe, waging war againts the Liao dynasty, most of the territory was conquered by the Jin dynasty, and the Song dynasty has lost in a battle with the Liao forces.
the Jin dynasty saw the opportunity, as the Song dynasty armies was weaken, and broke the agreements, conquering the capitol of the Song dynasty Bianjing in 1127 A.D. capturing Emperor Qinzong and other members of the imperial court.
The remaining force of the Song dynasty has fled south and was reunited by Emperor Gaozong, who established a new capitol for the Southern Song dynasty at Lin’an (Today, Hangzhou), he ruled china (south china) between the years 1127-1162 A.D.
During those years, the Song has worked hard to regain their military power, and established their first Navy force, the first use of gunpowder was invented during the Song dynasty, and when they clashed in war again with Jin dynasty on the Yangtze river in 1161 A.D, their Navy force which was smaller then the Jin’s has won a great victory.
Although the Song dynasty has been able to protect their lands from the Jin dynasty, a new threat has risen from North, and the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan has wage war with the Jin dynasty, making them vassals, and eventually conquering their lands.
At one time the Song and the Mongols were allies, until the Song dynasty saw the opportunity to recapture Bianjing, from the falling Jin dynasty, and the Mongols led by Mongke khan has entered a campaign against the southern Song dynasty.
After Mongke khan death at 1259 A.D, his brother Kublai khan has continued the campaign against the Song dynasty, eventually at 1271 A.D, he has founded the Great Yuan dynasty has a ruler of china, the Song dynasty still had a small resistance, but they were crushed by the Mongol force in 1279 A.D, The 8-years old Emperor Huaizong of song, has committed suicide with 800 more members of the royal clan, and eventually their era has finished.